This 1897 map shows lines and stations at the heyday of rail in Clay County. The steamboat era was ending, the automobile and roads hand't come along yet, and there was still a little timber to haul out of the county. The names of the lines and positions of depots changed all the time.
The Florida Railroad (From Fernandina to Cedar key)
The rails have been important to the County from the late 1850s when land grants were given for the Florida Railroad which would connect Fernandina with Cedar Key. David Yulee was a the President, and an old Clay Countian, Joseph Finegan, was the contractor who laid the tracks. Except for the Highland station, it lay outside the county, its importance being in the very large number of odd-section railroad land grants in Range 23. E. N. Dickerson (E. N. D.), for a brief period, was the county's largest land owner, being treasurer of the line, and owning the even sections in the same area. Taken by the Union Army in March, 1862, which remained in control through the War. The line changed hands at least six times, finally being called Seaborn when its tracks were removed in 1932.
Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railroad
The first railroad to become a thoroughfare for the county was the J,T&KW, which made its first run from Jacksonville to Palatka on standard guage March 6, 1884. In 1886 it completed the stretch from Palatka to Sanford. It provided convenient all along the river. This was especially important because of the poor condition of our roads. Steamboating and the Hotel Era declined with the advent of this line. Nevertheless, passenger travel on the line declined as automobiles began to appear on improved roads, and also because of the 1888 Yellow Fever quarentine. A bankruptcy received operated it beginning in 1893 until it beace part of the Plant System in 1899. Its Black Creek bridge washed out September 26, 1894 according to A. M. Reed. From 1902 it was the Atlantic Coast Line, and later as CSX.
The Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railroad survives today (part of CSX) and is the line we see running north-south through our County. Presently, it delivers coal from Appalachia to the Palatka power plant and hauls various freight. Occasionally we are lucky enough to see the Tropicana train or even luckier still - the Ringling Bros. Circus train. From time-to-time there is talk of shifting the freight off this line to make room from commuter trains in Orlando.
Green Cove Springs & Melrose RR
The second important line was the narrow-gauge GCS & Melrose line from Green Cove Springs. It's main purpose was likely to transport logs and lumber from the interior of the County to the mills and transport points at Green Cove Springs. Evidence of this appears in an 1889 dispute between local timber operations and the owners of the railroad, who were apparently charging too much ($2.62 on average per thousand hauled).
It extended six miles west in 1882 (see Board of Improvement Minutes), ten miles in 1884, then to Sharon (March, 1883), then later to Belmore (1886), and finally all 33.92 miles were laid to Melrose in 1890. The railroad, mainly owned by Ozias Buddington, went into receivership in 1886, but did resume operations.
Gen. Clinch helped develop this line, so its terminus was at his Bayard Tract south of Green Cove Springs. The railroad was granted odd-numbered sections within six miles of the track all along the line. By 1889, 7,781 acres had been conveyed to the railroad, and it begged for the remaining 30,618 acres it was owed. The Board responded by ordering swamp lands within twenty miles of the track to be given instead. This probably caused great difficulty for the company. Nevertheless, a host of new towns sprang up along the line starting in 1882. Gov. Francis Fleming watched these proceedings while he was on the Board of Improvements. When he left the Board, he became an agent for the GCS & Melrose successor (The South Western Railroad Co.), at which time he agreed to give up uncoveyed lands in exchange for being able to remove the rails. Many became ghost towns as the line went into receivership again in 1899. When it reached only so far as Belmore before being completed to Melrose, it was called the Green Cove Springs and Midland Railway (1888 Comptroller Report, pg 19). It carried the mail from Green Cove Springs to Melrose beginning on March 21, 1890.
An employee, John Walsh, died when the train jumped the tracks Apr 28, 1888. It was, by then, operating as the Western Railway, or Western Railroad. By 1895 it was the Southwestern Railroad (Comptrollers Report). It had suffered greatly when freight declined after the 1895 freeze, and timber, by now, had been nearly completely harvested. By 1899, it ceased to exist altogether. The line is shown as the SWRR on the map. Ozias Buddington was an early owner, perhaps interested because of his sawmill business. Few depot images have been found; it may be that buildings were never created, or they were not photo-inspirational.
You can see the progress in building this railroad, but scrolling through maps of the era.
The Middleburg, Highland and Lake Butler RR
Some say temporary lines were built willy-nilly to haul timber and cut lumber, and when the forest was denuded, the tracks would be picked up and moved, but articles of incorporation haven't been found, and there are a lot of creeks to cross in Clay County. One example is the Middleburg, Highland and Lake Butler, whose officers included A. G. Chalker, W. R. Chalker, Jr., Henry Clark and Leroy C. Emory, and which was chartered in 1888. Engineering News (1889) indicates William Varnedoe was the superintendant and that it wasn't yet completed.
The only other timber line which we have evidence of is an east-west line in the middle of the county shown on a 1917 map. Literally all of the long leaf pine had been cut north and south of this point by then. It ran between the MH&LB line to the north, and the GCS&Melrose to the south, both of which had already been pulled up. If you have information about this one, we'd like to hear from you.
The Line to Penney Farms
The only other line of importance, was a line J. C. Penney ran from Green Cove Springs to Penney Farms, ending at the Long Branch Station. It's likely that Florida Farms & Industries laid this down when they first tried to establish a colony there. If the line was pulled up, Penney relaid it to provide transportation once again.
The Georgia Southern and Florida
One other line ran through the southwest corner of the county, but is unlikely to have had much local significance: the Georgia Southern and Florida (1890 - 1950s).
Narrow-gauge shortline from Green Cove Springs to Magnolia Springs
Perhaps for tourists, a narrow gauge line ran from Green Cove Springs to Magnolia Springs, stretching all the way onto the piers at both terminuses.
In earlier times (1877) a two-mile line operated by Darby & Savage ran from a lumber camp, across Governor's Creek and into Green Cove Springs. Perhaps these two lines were relate. (see Parade of Memories, pg 186)
The Middleburg line that was never built
The Interlachen, Jacksonsonville and Ocala Air Line was never built, but may be the one Middleburgers are said to have rejected (see Jacksonville Board of Trade Report 1885, pg 43)
The Orange Park station was on Kingsley Ave. You may know there are some antique cars parked there now. Louise Saunders, one of the mail carriers operating out of Orange Park, remembers they would hang mail bags on the pole so the trains wouldn't have to stop.
The Town pre-dates the railroad and was developed by Washington G. Benedict and his Florida Winter Home & Improvement Co. in 1877.
Black Creek (Station)
Just North of Black Creek
Fleming / Russell
It is likely the Fleming stop got renamed Russell when the post office arrived.
This station was apparently only in operation in 1929.
The most exquisite station in the county, complete with architecturally interesting building, fountains and gardens -- all to attract guests to the Magnolia Springs Hotel.
Green Cove Springs
Green Cove Springs was the busiest station in the county, and warranted a side track to accomodate all the cars.
MAGNOLIA SPRINGS TO GREEN COVE
The Hay Burner
A rail line ran from the Magnolia Springs Hotel dock to the J,T&KW station. It also ran to Green Cove Springs and onto the pier. The Hay Burner was, most likely, a tourist attraction for hotel guests, and it is also likely that small freight cars carried firewood and other steamboat donnage.
Locomotive No. 1 is the only one made for Middleburg Lumber Co. by Glover Manufacturing. It was an 0-6-0 (all wheels powered) standard gauge, built in 1913. The photo was probably taken at their plant. What tracks it ran on in Clay County are unknown.
It is unknown if the Middleburg Lumber Co was affiliated with the MH&LB railroad.
"Among other improvident grants of land from which the State received no corresponding benefit, we may mention in passing, the gift of seven thousand, seven hundred and eight-one and 48-100 acres of heavily timbered land, in Clay county, to the Green Cove Springs & Melrose railroad. When the timber was removed form this land, the railroad which was very little, if any, more than a lumber road, gave back the land largely denuned of its then chief value, for permission to remove it's rails, doubtless to be sued in the construction of another lumber road somwwhere else." (FL Senate, Appendix to the Journal, Report of the Joint Commission, 1907, pg 349)
Brief history at Taplines.
The derisive language of the Senate might explain why we can't find photos of the depots -- if the owners knew or suspected it would be temporary, they wouldn't have invested in stations.
The terminus and office. Just south of Green Cove Springs. Intersected the J,T&KW.
Wilkinson's (or Wilkerson's)
Novella (Florence Mills, or Novilla)
Sharon (East Sharon and West Sharon)
Belmore (Belmore City)
The line only ran as far as Belmore from Clinch for quite a while.
The Belmore Land Co. offered lots in 1884.
Lake View (Lakeview, on Kingsley Lake)
The Tropical Land Co. offered lots in 1885. R. Fulton Cutting was the president of the Tropical Land Co., and his brother, W. Bayard Cutting, was on the board of directors of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway.
Springlake (Spring Lake)
Smaile's Switch (may be Newburg)
Hunters Mill (may be Smaile's Switch)
Melrose was the end of the line, except that transportation continued by use of the Santa Fe canal.
Florida Farms & Industries first developed the Long Branch area, owning as much as 1/3 of the county. Predecessor to Penney Farms. A beautiful "Pecan" brochure is available at the Archives.
The Florida Railroad in 1864, just before Civil War hostilities -- showing the Trail Ridge Station, the first RR station in Clay County.
Keystone Heights (renamed from Brooklyn in 1921
Books at the Archives
Bulletin 86: The Story of the Florida Railroads
Focus: The Railroad in Transition, by Robert S. Carper
Golden Years of Trains, by Hamlyn
History of Railroads in America, by Oliver Jensen
Iron Horses, by E. P. Alexander
Locomotives Colin Garratt